The benefits from dietary fat and protein sourced from grass- and clover-fed cows include hitting my favorite family of metabolic and proliferative switches in the mammalian kingdom... PPAR -- alpha gamma and delta! Not only does consumpation of dietary protein like beef and whey dairy protein activate mTOR and indirectly PPAR-delta, a natural fatty acid called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) found only in the meat and milk of pasture-fed cows like the ones in the picture also directly binds PPAR receptors. Like many mysteries and secrets revealed by my MILFy buff girlfriends, CLA grows muscle to be defined, lean, and tight. Body fat significantly decreases and minimizes (but it aint a miracle -- you still need to work a little, ie lift and pump and eat right). What girl (or TYPer) wouldn't want that? Additionally CLA reduces cancer and reduces proliferation.
Food sources of CLA (and Vits K2, D3, A, Butyric acid, EPA, DHA) :
CLA raises muscle mass with resistance training in humans and reduces weight in the obese humans (and in rats):
- Lowery LM, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid enhances muscle size and strength gains in novice bodybuilders. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 30(5):S182, 1998.
- Pinkoski C, et al. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Feb;38(2):339-48.
- Tarnopolsky MA, Safdar A. The potential benefits of creatine and conjugated linoleic acid as adjuncts to resistance training in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):213-27. Review.
- Blankson H, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr. 2000 Dec;130(12):2943-8.
- Gaullier JM, et al. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):550-60.
- Gaullier JM, et al. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):778-84.
- Gaullier JM, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):1118-25.
- Risérus U, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Aug;25(8):1129-35.
- Eyjolfson V, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity in young, sedentary humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 May;36(5):814-20.
- Liu LF, et al. Combined effects of rosiglitazone and conjugated linoleic acid on adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-fed mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):G1671-82.
- Park Y, et al. Changes in body composition in mice during feeding and withdrawal of conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids. 1999 Mar;34(3):243-8.
Muller et al studied how if human vascular cells also may carry CLA as ruminant tissues do... guess what he found? Müller A, et al. Detection of conjugated dienoic fatty acids in human vascular smooth muscle cells treated with conjugated linoleic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 15;1737(2-3):145-51.
"Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have attracted scientific interest due to their potential beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated that conjugated metabolites of CLA are found in tissues of CLA-fed animals and cultured cells treated with CLA. This observation has gained in importance since it has recently been shown that these metabolites of CLA exert specific biological activities...Examination of fatty acid composition of total cell lipids ...revealed a significant isomer-specific formation of conjugated metabolites of CLA such as CD16:2, CD20:2 and CD22:2 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells treated with various CLA isomers. Different CD16:2/CLA ratios between various CLA isomers as observed in the present study indicate that fatty acid metabolism is differently affected by the configuration of the double bonds. In conclusion, the observation from the present study suggests that the effects of CLA in vascular cells might not only be mediated by CLA itself but also by its conjugated metabolites."
Of course synthetic CLA is artificially created with hydrogenated cheap industrial veggie oils which is not likely to be as beneficial (longterm) as naturally derived CLA from whole foods.
- Higher concentrations of vitamin E, CLA, long change omega-3 fatty acids in pasture fed cow milk. Leiber F, et al. A study on the causes for the elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows' milk of alpine origin. Lipids. 2005 Feb;40(2):191-202. PMID: 15884768
- Grain (corn) feeding lowers CLA and content of other important nutrients like Butyric acid (4-carbon fatty acid) in the fat of cow milk. Stockdale CR, et al. Influence of pasture and concentrates in the diet of grazing dairy cows on the fatty acid composition of milk. J Dairy Res. 2003 Aug;70(3):267-76. PMID: 12916820
- Beef meat considered a source of 'omega-3s' EPA/DHA when pasture fed. Mann NJ, et al. Feeding regimes affect fatty acid composition in Australian beef cattle. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12 Suppl:S38. PMID: 15023647
- Ponnampalam EN, et al. Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):21-9. PMID: 16500874