"There were substantial differences between W-HAW and the other RS types. Changes in SCFA and pH were distributed more evenly through the large bowel in rats fed W- HAW. This may be of some value, because most chronic large bowel disease (including CRC) is localized in the distal colon and rectum, where SCFA supply is lowest (44). It has been suggested that a combination of RS plus nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) is optimal in ensuring the supply of SCFA to these viscera (45). Our data support this, because HAW contained both fiber polysaccharides integrally, whereas the other diets (apart from W-LAW) required the addition of fiber." Conlon et al, 2012.
W-HAW = Western diet, high amylose wheat [no, I'm not advocating wheat]
W-LAW = Western diet, low amylose wheat
NSP = non starch polysaccharide [all other fiber except RS]
RS = resistant starch
About a year ago I talked about the importance of the entire fiber spectrum and did my first post on #RESISTANTSTARCH lol. Below are other relevant RS posts:
- Feeding the Microbiota: Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP), Resistant Starch (RS) and Mucous
- Sorry. Resistant Starch is Unlikely to Miraculously Cause Weight Loss and Body Fat Loss
- Why We Are Sick and Fat: Calories In (SUPERORGANISM) = Calories Out (MICROBIOTA) + Calories Out (HUMAN) + HEAT*Fluxxx
- Legumes and Potatoes are Certainly P-A-L-E-O (Because Cooked RS3 and Raw RS2 are Paleo and Ancestral)
- Cooked/Crystallized RS3 Trumps the F*KC Outta Raw RS2: They are Vastly Different for Our Guts
Cooked RS3 Helped Heal My Gut
Cooked RS3 helped heal my gut along with soil probiotics; they allowed me and my kids to tolerate dairy and gluten again. I like it and it's a fantastic tool. It's the anchor of the 7 Steps.
|Source: Fermentation of non-digestible oligosaccharides by human colonic bacteria|
Gibson et al, 1996
Average Daily Fiber Estimates
Rebiosis to Heal the Gut
In healing the gut, rebiosis needs to occur -- reintroduction of lost life to a dysbiotic terrain. Nearly all health conditions being studied are now emerging with correlations to intestinal dysbiosis. And as we know by fixing dysbiosis, we can resolve many health conditions from allergies to autism spectrum to hypertension. Weeding, seeding, breeding and feeding are part of this cycle of rebiosis.
The loss of our microbial 'limbs' in the gut can likely be attributed to 5 main factors:
(1) altered births: mothers that lacked commensals, C-section birth, use of formula
(2) widespread use of antibiotics in healthcare and poultry/livestock
(3) sanitation and modern food supplanting foods that were teeming with microbes before (food, processed pickles, hands, water/soil, fecal contaminated drinking water, etc)
(4) pollution and toxins -- mercury, arsenic, xenoestrogens (do you have moobies?), etc
(5) distance and disconnection from the soil, good dirt teeming with microbes and unmolested by herbicides, pesticides, steam treatment, synthetic chemicals or petrol based fertilizers
Cooked RS3 is Ancestrally Derived
I think RS is a foundation fiber that our grandmothers forage and fired up on ancestral coals, primitive ovens and later village hearths. I think our ancestral mothers and caregivers fed all varieties of tender and tasty tubers, starchy roots, rhizomes and corms to toddlers and teens along with berries, stems, leaves, seafood and meaty bones.
RS3 and RS2 are vastly different in our guts. They feed different populations and even anatomically act differently in our gut tube.
RS3 acts like insoluble fiber, carrying fermentation way until the distal end of the intestinal tube, whereas RS2 acts like kindling, burning hot and quickly at the intestinal gateway, the caecum. Alone, raw resistant starch granules are rapidly eaten by intestinal flora and leave no residual to be fermented at your butt/rectum unless insoluble fiber and/or cooked RS3 are included at the same time in the diet.
Gut researchers Conlon, Topping and their team (above) discuss how their data supports that RS2 (high amylose maize) cannot supply butyrate or other SCFA to the distal gut without the mechanical structure of insoluble fiber, such as that found in wheat, wheat bran and insoluble wheat fibers [and again, no, I'm not advocating gluten or wheat].
I think a lot of people are benefiting from green banana flour and raw potato starch -- all fantastic sources of RS2 -- but make errors in trying to supplement a high RS2 dose or a dose that is deficient in supplying fuel and structure for the entire gut. The non-RS2 microbial eaters starve and eventually become extinct or become weak and outcompeted. They even lose their functionality in degrading different plant polysaccharides according to data about Ruminococcus bromii, the keystone degrader for both RS2 and RS3. According to Ze et al, at least 25% of healthy controls don't have R bromii or have defective R bromii that cannot use or eat resistant starch. TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT ARE F**KCED? Yes and what about the unhealthy? The obese? The pre-cancerous? The cancer survivors? The ones who took 6 months of antibiotics for acne or Lyme disease? The ones who have been following longterm Paleo? Strict AIP? Or ketotic very low carb (very low fiber/RS) diets? Or on one or couple courses of antibiotics for sinus infections, colds, fevers or urinary tract infections? The ones on acid blockers like H2 receptor antagonists or the "purple pill" PPIs?
Is your R. bromii 50% f*kced? 75%? 85%?? I dunno. Probably a lot if you don't have healthy dirt, livestock exposures or soil-based organism type probiotics to replenish their inherent functionality.
+ Don't take green banana flour or potato starch alone without insoluble plant fibers or cooked resistant starch (eg brown rice, beans, lentils, whole cooked tubers, carrots, 3-5 servings fibrous vegetables or fruit)
+ Don't take green banana flour or potato starch at high dose without the entire plant fiber spectrum for a long period of time: inulin, oligosaccharides (eg onions, leeks, chives, yacon root, Jerusalem sunchokes, asparagus, inulin supplementation, etc). You may likely skew your gut populations.
You may starve and kill these tender and immunoprotective populations:
--Bifidobacteria (many species just do not eat raw RS2; yet all eat cooked RS3, inulin, oligosaccharides, other fiber)
--Lactobacillus (none eat RS2; all eat cooked RS3)
--Good E coli
The F-Word: F*BER
Get the range of 'fiber', RS and plant/meat glycans:
- Milk Oligosaccharides - the carbohydrates found in raw cow, sheep, goat and human breast milk, dairy products and fermented soft and hard cheeses.
- Resistant Starch (RS) - the most common storage carbohydrate of plants. Found in tubers, roots, green bananas, green plantains, legumes, peas, oats, nuts, carrots, maize, sedge nutlets, and grains.
- Inulin and Oigosaccharides (OS) - (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides) the second most common storage carbohydrate of plants including chicory root and its greens (aka endive), onion, leek, yacon root, Jerusalem artichokes, dandelion leaves and roots, asparagus, ripe bananas/plantains, legumes, lentils, oats, whole rice, red/black/purple rice, maize, grains.
- Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP): (found in small and large amounts in nature)
Arabinogalactan - a storage carbohydrate of trees and many plants (carrots, radish, black gram beans, pear, maize, red wine, tomatoes, sorghum, coconut meat)
Arabinoxylan - found in whole grains, psyllium, steel cut oats
Glucomannan - found in the cell walls of certain plant roots and wood, also a component of bacterial and yeast membrane. Konjac roots contain 40% by dry weight and are a great source of glucomannan
β-Glucans - found in oats, barley, whole grains, shiitake, oyster, maitake, mushrooms, dates, yeast
Pectin - found in avocados, berries, citrus, fruits, vegetables
Gums and mucilages - found in seed extracts (guar, locust bean), tree exudates (gum acacia, algal polysaccharides (alginates, agar, carrageenan), psyllium
Man-made prebiotics derived from plants and animals:
Galacto Oligosaccharides (GOS) - derived from cow’s milk to simulate human breast milk for infant formula. Dr Bill Lagakos favorite by UK Bimuno! bimuno.com
Fructo Oligosaccharides (FOS) - separated from natural inulin, used in sweeteners.
Mannan Oligosaccharides (MOS)- made from yeast cells, approved only for animals.
Potent but powerful prebiotics:
Polyphenols and Flavonoids - found in many places in trace amounts; colorful plants, dark chocolate, seaweed, and mushrooms. Red wine (but not gin) raises Bifidobacteria.
Glycans and glycolipids - Found in raw meat, raw blood, cartilage, gelatin, collagen, chondroitin, and animal cells.
Chitin and chitosan - found in fungi, yeasts, insects, worms.