Friday, August 29, 2008

HDL2b -- Age, Adiposity, Alcohol and Estrogen

The lipoprotein subfraction HDL2b is emerging as the marker for regression of plaque and longevity. Even evidence from 10-15 yrs ago revealed this remarkable relationship. Looking to centenarians, scientists often search for answers and clues to longevity and control of chronic illnesses. These Italian researchers examined the the relationship between 2 subfractions of HDL -- small dense HDL 3a and large fluffy HDL 2b. The HDL 2b subfraction appear protective (at 32.4%) compared to younger/healthy matched controls (at 23.4%) and HDL 3a, appear degenerating for longevity. The interesting thing to note is that total HDLs were similar between all groups. In other words, the HDL from traditional labs tells nothing about HDL2 or HDL2b or HDL 3a. (Here Dr. Davis rails about the failures and weaknesses of conventionalist-type medicine in their overreliance on Friedewald's equation. )
"In order to assess the role of HDL on longevity, we studied HDL subfraction distribution in centenarian women compared with a group of weight- and gender-matched healthy normolipidemic controls. We did not find any significant difference in the mean plasma lipid, apolipoprotein, and Lp(a) levels. On the contrary, in spite of similar HDL-cholesterol concentrations (1.32 +/- 0.41 mmol/l in centenarians vs. 1.32 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in controls, p = not significant), HDL2b and HDL3a levels were, respectively, significantly increased and significantly reduced in centenarians in comparison with controls (HDL2b 32.4 +/- 9.2% in centenarians vs. 23.4 +/- 7.7% in controls, p less than 0.002) and HDL3a 26.3 +/- 9.8% in centenarians vs. 34.1 +/- 7.3% in controls, p less than 0.01). HDL2b levels were significantly raised and HDL3a levels were significantly reduced in centenarians in comparison with both 'middle-aged' and 'elderly' subjects, whereas no difference for any HDL subfraction was found between the two groups of controls of different ages."





HDL Subclasses

The subclasses of total HDL are defined via absorbency of a protein stain which serves as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm. We desire a reduction in CETP activity to prevent transfer of mass from HDL to VLDL (small dense LDL).

  • HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm) -- plaque-builder (bad)
  • HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2nm)
  • HDL3a 8.2 to 8.8 nm)
  • HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm)
  • HDL2b (9.7 to 12 nm) -- plaque-BUSTER (good)
Research that came out of the Lawrence Berkeley Labs in 1993 also reinforced how reductions of HDL2b parallels how known risks for CAD go up with age, adiposity and lack of estrogen. Williams et al studied HDL subfractions in Mormon men and women here in the Bay Area. Some Mormons kindreds did drink and smoke -- *HOLY MOLY BATMAN* don't tell the church of LDS -- and their data were excluded from relevant analyses). The alcohol factor is curious -- for women it may appear protective however for men no distinct protective benefit for HDL2b appears strong because a corollary increase in HDL3b and 3c occurs with alcohol consumption (??did that potentially negate the mild protective 2b increase?).


Here are their conclusions as they summarized:
  • HDL3b concentrations were higher after menopause than before
  • Eighty-eight percent of the increase in HDL associated with estrogen replacement (conjugated/horse hormones most likely) in postmenopausal women occurred within HDL3a (bad) and HDL2a.
  • Adult men (> or = 18 years old) had significantly higher HDL3c and HDL3b
  • Adult men had significantly lower HDL2b and HDL2a levels than younger boys (why?)
  • There were no significant differences between the HDL profiles of women and younger boys, suggesting that divergence in HDL occurs during puberty
  • Compared with the women, adult men had higher levels of HDL3c and HDL3b
  • Adult men had lower levels of HDL2b, HDL2a, and larger-diameter HDL3a particles compared with women (is this why women live longer then men??? )
  • In both men and premenopausal adult women, increasing levels of body mass index were associated with higher levels of HDL3b (bad) and lower levels of HDL2b (very very bad).


The authors noticed that "Reported alcohol intake in adult men correlated with two HDL regions: one within the HDL2b region (good) and a second within the HDL3a/2a region (bad), whereas in women the positive correlation between alcohol and HDL levels was within the HDL2b region only."












So what are the most potent things we can do to raise HDL2? We know that most of the HDL2 increases are due to HDL2b increases. HDL2 in fact is a good surrogate for the regression marker HDL2b. Studies show this -- and the TYP program reinforces this:

--Achieving normal BMI. Reducing adiposity (esp central though the above study does note that central vs. peripheral was not measured) will raise HDL2b and lower HDL3a/HDL3b/HDL3c

--Reduce your 'biological age' -- how? movement movement movement, vitamin D3, etc

--Take Niacin -- this B3-vitamin which mimics fasting and ketosis raises HDL2 100% (or occasionally get ketotic with intermittent fasting -- when you're not stressed/sleep deprived which is when Cortisol is excessively high) in trials

--Take Fish Oil -- at 'low dose' 4 g DHA per day HDL2 increases of 30% are observed (is more better? yes)

--Restrict carbohydrates (yes sirree, that includes F - R - U - I - T - S , ie, Nature's candy) and again the same researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Labs Williams, Krauss et al confirm this here. And even for you elite athletes out there -- the low HDL corresponds to CAD risk -- and carb (yes fruit) will trigger concomitant huge magnitudes of insulin eruptions and reductions in HDL2b and increases in VLDL/small LDL. The research demonstrated that here well.

--Consume a higher fat and saturated fat intake...like lauric acid (unprocessed coconut oil), caproic/caprylic and butyric acid (raw pasture raised butter oil)

--Get on Bio-idential/tx estrogen which raises HDL2b 150% (see below) (if you're lacking -- yes even men? perhaps... Post-menopausal women do apply Testosterone cream, why not vice versa?) In the study below Ethinyl Estradiol 0.1mg orally was taken by pre-menopausal women and resulted in total HDL increasing 38.3% and HDL apoA1, 25-27%. Oral estrogen sometimes worsens cholesterol for some -- transderm/topically applied are preferable for some. Are women the superior species?

Well... though what would we be without the men we stand behind?
  • The effects of estrogen administration on plasma lipoprotein metabolism in premenopausal females. Schaefer EJ, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Aug;57(2):262-7.
    PMID: 6408108



--BG


P.S.
If you want plaque and a reduction in heart-protective HDL2b, follow the AHA Step I low-fat diet. The researchers are GENUISES... they repeated the same results in obese, postmenopausal women (but at least their conclusions were rationale this time).
Effects of an American Heart Association step I diet and weight loss on lipoprotein lipid levels in obese men with silent myocardial ischemia and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.Katzel LI, Coon PJ, Dengel J, Goldberg AP. Metabolism. 1995 Mar;44(3):307-14.

ENJOY! And...give a copy to your conventionalist MD... you have my permission...no need to wait for April Fool's Day or another heart attack...

Saturday, August 16, 2008

Olympic Global Domination and All Things Fish Oil


Who benefits from fish oil (DHA+EPA)?

a. all elite athletes
b. all wanna-be elite athletes (like me)
c. all sedentary individuals hiding their an inner-athlete
d. anyone breathing

(Answer: all the above)




Has Mr. Michael Phelps grown G-I-L-L-S with fish oil?

(So...I'm going to reveal a national Olympic secret now...)

Olympian Ms. Dara Grace Torres certainly appears to have grown gills with ultra high dose fish oil!

AND... probably Phelps too... Is pHELPs getting HELP?
And see Dara's cuty baby-fishy/tadpole?

Besides growing gills, ultra high dose fish oil promotes dramatic reduction in plaque regression and lipoprotein (a) (see end for deeper discussion)...

Olympic Secret Here:
--Part 1: Build a Better Athlete
--Part 2: Perform like a World-Class Athlete

41-year old Torres is the oldest medal-accumulating Olympic swimmer in global history. She is the only American to swim in FIVE Olympics -- 1984, 1988, 1992, 2000, and now 2008 and awarded 10 medals so far (mostly Gold). What has provided a hormonal, metabolic edge for Ms. Torres to become one of the best consistent athletes to outperform at an elite level beyond her age capacity?

Clearly she is a R-O-C-K-S-T-A-R (and (!!)HOT bikini model, MILF, 3X-world-record-maker phenom, twice 'retired', and Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach race car winner). With a little help from ultra high dose fish oil... an optimal high-protein low-carb diet... and core weight lifting/strength training, she is conquering the world!

Here in an interview, re-capping his book Omega RxZone, lipid researcher Dr. B Sears PhD, discusses how he started his research on fish oil in elite athletes instead of cardiovascular patients. In his book he discussed using 10 g/day DHA+EPA and titrating tiny amounts of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) for optimal mental and athletic performance in training the Stanford swim team during the 1990s and in preparing Dara Torres for the 2000 Olympics where she subsequently returned to the sport and won two Gold medals.

"Though I initially developed my dietary plan to treat patients with cardiovascular disease, I did much of my early field-testing of supplemental fish oil on world-class athletes. I decided to start with athletes because I’ve found they are generally more motivated to stick with a dietary program than patients with cardiovascular disease."

Obviously, this attitude is not applicable to the devoted TYPers who are committed and dedicated to ultimate heart/vascular fitness and dietary compliance (wheat-free carb restricted, mod protein, mod fats, mod veggies). Performance and unparalled plaque-free existence are synonymous for those of us at Track Your Plaque.



Athletic Performance and Cardiovascular Lipoprotein Improvements

Sears contends (and I strongly agree from my personal experience) in an interview with Swimming World Magazine that...

"Studies over the past eight years from the University of Buffalo have demonstrated when trained athletes are switched to a lower-carbohydrate, and higher-fat diet; their performance is significantly enhanced as well as their cardiovascular profiles. This led the Buffalo investigators to remark that high-carbohydrate diets may be injurious to the cardiovascular health of trained athletes. "

Fish oil DHA+EPA plus tiny amounts of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) have many benefits for athletic performance and cardioprotection when combined with intermittent strength training and daily aerobic cardiovascular exercise:

  • Enhanced release IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) from the liver which studies have shown to lower apo B, Lp(a), TGs, and small LDL
  • Increased production of anti-inflammatory fatty acids and prostaglandins and derivatives which increase blood flow and oxygen transfer to improve endurance
  • Enhanced release of hGH (human growth hormone) from the pituitary gland increases lean muscle mass and muscle repair
  • Production of anti-inflammatory chemicals reduce pain (like NSAIDs and aspirin) and allow faster recovery from intense work outs




What is IGF-1? IGF-1 Lower Lp(a)

It's necessary to shuttle glucose and amino acids into tissues that need it the most, for instance skeletal muscles which are striving, straining and winning Gold and Silver medals in Beijing. Most (75%) of the circulating IGF-1 originates from the liver. Again, the liver 'reads' food inputs and information like a computer. When protein is consumed (ie, amino acids like Taurine, Arginine, Glutamine, etc), the liver communicates to the rest of the world to be prepared to construct muscle and muscular tissues for growth and future physical activities... like swimming at speeds faster than the rest of the entire world. In baboons and humans, IGF-1 both endogenously made (ie, home grown in our bodies from muscle training activities and exercise and appropriate protein consumption) and from exogenously injected, reduces Lp(a) significantly. Lp(a) as you are already aware is a toxic lipoprotein that accelerates heart attack and stroke events.

IGF-1 also has hypoglycemic effects meaning a result of its actions is lowering of blood sugars. With advancing age, reduced estrogen/testosterone, vitamin D deficiency, elevated PTH, and exercise-deficiency, IGF-1 has been shown to decline. Aerobic training and low-intensity weight/resistance training all raise IGF-1 well. (High intensity resistance training is great too but did not affect IGF-1 and raised cortisol in unconditioned, elderly subjects in one study)


Manetta J, Brun JF, et al.
Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding proteins-1 and -3 in middle-aged and young athletes versus sedentary men: relationship with glucose disposal.Metabolism. 2003 Jul;52(7):821-6.PMID: 12870155


Borst SE, De Hoyos DV, et al.
Effects of resistance training on insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF binding proteins.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Apr;33(4):648-53.PMID: 11283443

Yakar S, Wu Y, Setser J, Rosen CJ.
The role of circulating IGF-I: lessons from human and animal models. Endocrine. 2002 Dec;19(3):239-48. Review. PMID: 12624423

Wang XL, Wang J, Rainwater DL.
Acute effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 and recombinant growth hormone on liporotein(a) levels in baboons.Metabolism. 2002 Apr;51(4):508-13.PMID: 11912562

Sukhanov S, Higashi Y, et al.
IGF-1 reduces inflammatory responses, suppresses oxidative stress, and decreases atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-deficient mice.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Dec;27(12):2684-90. PMID: 17916769

Decensi A, Robertson C, Ballardini B, et al.
Effect of tamoxifen on lipoprotein(a) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in healthy women.
Eur J Cancer. 1999 Apr;35(4):596-600.PMID: 1049263

Laron Z, Wang XL, et al.
Growth hormone increases and insulin-like growth factor-I decreases circulating lipoprotein(a).Eur J Endocrinol. 1997 Apr;136(4):377-81. PMID: 9150696

Z, Wang XL, Klinger B, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor-I decreases serum lipoprotein (a) during long-term treatment of patients with Laron syndrome. Metabolism. 1996 Oct;45(10):1263-6. PMID: 8843182

Solerte SB, Gazzaruso C, et al.
Nutritional supplements with oral amino acid mixtures increases whole-body lean mass and insulin sensitivity in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. (INCREASES IN IGF NATURALLY OCCURRED) Am J Cardiol. 2008 Jun 2;101(11A):69E-77E. PMID: 18514630


Moinuddin I, Leehey DJ.
A comparison of aerobic exercise and resistance training in patients with and without chronic kidney disease. (IGF INCREASED IN BOTH SUB-POPS) Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2008 Jan;15(1):83-96. Review.PMID: 18155113


Adamo ML, Farrar RP.
Resistance training, and IGF involvement in the maintenance of muscle mass during the aging process. Ageing Res Rev. 2006 Aug;5(3):310-31. PMID: 16949353

Soliman AT, Al Khalaf F, et al.
Linear growth in relation to the circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in children with nutritional rickets before and after treatment: endocrine adaptation to vitamin D deficiency.Metabolism. 2008 Jan;57(1):95-102. PMID: 18078865

Hyppönen E, Boucher BJ, Berry DJ, Power C.
25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort.Diabetes. 2008 Feb;57(2):298-305. PMID: 18003755





GLA Amps Up DHA+EPA Benefits

Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is one of the 'few' good omega-6 fatty acids. A great discussion is provided here by Sally Fallon. Too much GLA however can result in body/joint aches and reduced mental benefits (because too much GLA in the tissues can lead to accumulation of arachidonic acid). Fine-tuning is necessary to not 'overdo' and disrupt the balance of benefits and over-compensation.

Food sources of GLA (oil portion of seeds) include:
--Oat Bran, Steel-cut Oats
--Sesame Seeds, Sesame Oil, Tahini (sesame paste)
--Borage Oil
--Evening Primrose Oil
--Black Currant Oil
--Hempseed
--Pine nuts, Pine nut oil



Don't Degrade Your D6Ds

We can convert and produce good omega-3's in our own bodies but certain factors degrade our ability to do so sometimes. These are proven factors that reduce the function of delta-6-desaturases (D6Ds) which are the critical enzymes necessary to convert fatty acids to good omega-3 fatty acids and anti-inflammatory derivatives in our body:
-alcohol
-smoking
-pollution
-exposure to chemicals (esp high glycemic-index carbohydrates)
-dietary fats only when combined with high GI carbohydrates/wheat
-elevated insulin (esp from high GI carbohydrates and excessive fruit)
-'exercise-deficiency'
-elevated chronic inflammation (ie, mental stress, sleep deprivation, chronic diseases)




What are other secrets of Dara Torres for her infinite speed, beauty and physique?

From an interview with the NY Times she reveals her passion for race car driving and applying these physics to her training. In addition to low-rep high weight strength training 60-90min 4x per week, she engages in resistance stretching -- a combo of yoga, massage and acrobatics.

"Torres calls resistance stretching her “secret weapon (*wink wink* IN ADDITION TO ULTRA HIGH DOSE FISH OIL).” reports Bob Cooley, who invented the discipline, describes it in less-modest terms. According to Cooley, over a two-week period in 1999, his flexibility system turned Torres “from being an alternate on the relay team to the fastest swimmer in America.” The secret to Torres’s speed, Cooley says, is that his technique not only makes her muscles more flexible but also increases their ability to shorten more completely, and when muscles shorten more completely, they produce greater power and speed. “What do race-car drivers do when they want to go faster?” Cooley asks. “They don’t spend more hours driving around the track. They increase the biomechanics of the car. And that’s what resistance flexibility is doing for Dara — increasing her biomechanics..."




Standard Dosing of DHA+EPA

You must read the label carefully and determine 'total' EPA+DHA (by adding the two amounts EPA plus DHA) and 'serving size'.

What dose is minimal?
Standard dose:
3000mg daily = 3 g daily
(1000 milligrams = 1 gram)



Lp(a) and the Power of Fish Oil

What dose is effective for Lp(a) Reduction (see below for a detailed discussion)?
8.5 g daily = 8500 mg daily EPA+DHA

According to one study, significant reduction of Lp(a) was achieved with 8500mg daily of DHA+EPA in post-CABG men when combined with weight loss via swimming 30min daily in a very short 4-week time frame.

'Responders' in the 1995 German study had an even more impressive fish oil-response than expected with a reduction of Lp(a) of 24 % compared with Non-Responders how had no change or even an increase in Lp(a) (with standardized 'dietician/high-carb-whole grain-nazi'-prepared study lab chow).

  • Comparison of effects of N-3 to N-6 fatty acids on serum level of lipoprotein(a) in patients with coronary artery disease.Herrmann W, Biermann J, Kostner GM. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Sep 1;76(7):459-62.
  • Introduction: The influence of dietary supplementation with n-3 versus n-6 fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels was studied. Thirty-five male hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease were treated for 4 weeks with 12 g/day of fish oil (approximately 8.5 g of n-3 fatty acids) in combination with a 5,000 kilojoule, 30% fat diet and moderate exercise. Eighteen control patients given the same dietary and training program were treated with 12 g/day of rapeseed oil. Plasma Lp(a), in addition to several lipids and lipoproteins, blood clotting factors, and platelet reactivity, were measured before and at the end of therapy.
  • Results can be summarized as follows: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels decreased significantly in both the rapeseed oil (-14.4%, -20.3%, -15.2%, respectively) and fish oil (-12.2%, -16.0%, and -14.2%, respectively) groups.
  • Triglycerides decreased (-20.3%) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (+8.3%) significantly only in patients treated with fish oil.
  • Plasma Lp(a) levels were reduced by 14% in the fish oil group, but unaffected in the rapeseed oil group.
  • Patients treated with fish oil could be categorized into 2 subgroups: "responders," with a reduction in Lp(a) by 24% and "nonresponders," with a small nonsignificant increase in serum Lp(a).
  • Responders and nonresponders exhibited a marked reduction in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol.
  • There was a large reduction in tissue plasminogen activator in the fish oil group, which correlated significantly with reduction in Lp(a).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    PMID: 7653444


***********************************************************

My Favorite Excellent Fish oil DHA+EPA (molecularly distilled) Sources
(of course many others are excellent...these are just the ones I've had time to try)


Carlson's liquid (38% DHA) 1300mg DHA+EPA/tsp
$25.46 for 500ml bottle (100 tsps)
(Free shipping over $60 orders at iHerb.com)
3g/day=$0.59 per day $$

PharmaOmega brand Cardio (31% DHA) 800mg EPA+DHA/cap
$32.95 for one box/#60 caps (summer sale 6-mon supply)
3g/day=$2.06 per day $$$$

PharmaOmega brand very-small-sized Child 325mg/cap (62%DHA)
$21.95/#60caps

PharmaOmega brand small-sized Learn 700mg/cap (28.5%DHA)
$21.95/#60caps

NOW brand SUPER EPA (40% DHA) 600mg DHA+EPA/cap
From small fish, molecularly distilled
$20.78 for 240 caps
3g/day=$0.43 per day $

NSI brand MEGA EFA (33% DHA) 600mg DHA+EPA/cap
$21.99 for 240 caps
3g/day=$0.46 per day $


NOW Omega-3 liquid lemon-flavored (iherb.com) $$ From small fish, molecularly distilled

Max DHA Jarrow's lemon liquid (iherb.com) $$$

Nature's Answer Omega-3 orange liquid (iherb.com) $

Monday, August 4, 2008

Happy Cows and Fish Oil

Here's an inspiring friend and buddy... Ms. Happy Cow like the rest of the happy cows in my neighborhood (see last photo from my camera). Everytime I run by one of the cows grazing on fresh clover and grass and absorbing full spectrum sunlight nearly all day, I have to resist the urge to put on... my dairy-maid outfit! And start milking! Here's the tribute to happy cows (and their DHA, EPA and CLA) which make ideas at the Animal Pharm (and my brain) possible...


This picture is courtesy of Bay Nature which showcases Mt. Diablo well in the background and more happy cows.

The benefits from dietary fat and protein sourced from grass- and clover-fed cows include hitting my favorite family of metabolic and proliferative switches in the mammalian kingdom... PPAR -- alpha gamma and delta! Not only does consumpation of dietary protein like beef and whey dairy protein activate mTOR and indirectly PPAR-delta, a natural fatty acid called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) found only in the meat and milk of pasture-fed cows like the ones in the picture also directly binds PPAR receptors. Like many mysteries and secrets revealed by my MILFy buff girlfriends, CLA grows muscle to be defined, lean, and tight. Body fat significantly decreases and minimizes (but it aint a miracle -- you still need to work a little, ie lift and pump and eat right). What girl (or TYPer) wouldn't want that? Additionally CLA reduces cancer and reduces proliferation.
CLA is produced by the bacteria in the bellies of ruminants who consume grass or clover (not hay or grains).

Food sources of CLA (and Vits K2, D3, A, Butyric acid, EPA, DHA) :
--pasture-fed cowmilk (at most good health food stores: Organic Pastures $6.99/qt)
--pasture-fed cowmilk cheese, butter, raw butter oil
--pasture-fed goat milk, dairy products
Protein sources with CLA (and DHA+EPA/aka 'fish oil'):
--pasture-fed beef
--pasture-fed lamb
--pasture-fed sheep
--pasture-fed goat
--pasture-fed bison, wild bison
--wild deer, elk, antelope



Of course I like CLA because also it potently binds and activates PPAR -- all of them. Alpha, gamma and beta/delta. This is why my muscles feel so wonderful and grow well (after like... some strain and pain... scrubbing those plaquey-toilets at home).

CLA raises muscle mass with resistance training in humans and reduces weight in the obese humans (and in rats):
  • Lowery LM, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid enhances muscle size and strength gains in novice bodybuilders. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 30(5):S182, 1998.
  • Pinkoski C, et al. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Feb;38(2):339-48.
  • Tarnopolsky MA, Safdar A. The potential benefits of creatine and conjugated linoleic acid as adjuncts to resistance training in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):213-27. Review.
  • Blankson H, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr. 2000 Dec;130(12):2943-8.
  • Gaullier JM, et al. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. Br J Nutr. 2007 Mar;97(3):550-60.
  • Gaullier JM, et al. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):778-84.
  • Gaullier JM, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):1118-25.
  • Risérus U, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Aug;25(8):1129-35.
  • Eyjolfson V, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity in young, sedentary humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 May;36(5):814-20.
  • Liu LF, et al. Combined effects of rosiglitazone and conjugated linoleic acid on adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-fed mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):G1671-82.
  • Park Y, et al. Changes in body composition in mice during feeding and withdrawal of conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids. 1999 Mar;34(3):243-8.



Muller et al studied how if human vascular cells also may carry CLA as ruminant tissues do... guess what he found? Müller A, et al. Detection of conjugated dienoic fatty acids in human vascular smooth muscle cells treated with conjugated linoleic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 15;1737(2-3):145-51.

"Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have attracted scientific interest due to their potential beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated that conjugated metabolites of CLA are found in tissues of CLA-fed animals and cultured cells treated with CLA. This observation has gained in importance since it has recently been shown that these metabolites of CLA exert specific biological activities...Examination of fatty acid composition of total cell lipids ...revealed a significant isomer-specific formation of conjugated metabolites of CLA such as CD16:2, CD20:2 and CD22:2 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells treated with various CLA isomers. Different CD16:2/CLA ratios between various CLA isomers as observed in the present study indicate that fatty acid metabolism is differently affected by the configuration of the double bonds. In conclusion, the observation from the present study suggests that the effects of CLA in vascular cells might not only be mediated by CLA itself but also by its conjugated metabolites."


Of course synthetic CLA is artificially created with hydrogenated cheap industrial veggie oils which is not likely to be as beneficial (longterm) as naturally derived CLA from whole foods.

RELATED LINKS:
  • Higher concentrations of vitamin E, CLA, long change omega-3 fatty acids in pasture fed cow milk. Leiber F, et al. A study on the causes for the elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows' milk of alpine origin. Lipids. 2005 Feb;40(2):191-202. PMID: 15884768

  • Grain (corn) feeding lowers CLA and content of other important nutrients like Butyric acid (4-carbon fatty acid) in the fat of cow milk. Stockdale CR, et al. Influence of pasture and concentrates in the diet of grazing dairy cows on the fatty acid composition of milk. J Dairy Res. 2003 Aug;70(3):267-76. PMID: 12916820

  • Beef meat considered a source of 'omega-3s' EPA/DHA when pasture fed. Mann NJ, et al. Feeding regimes affect fatty acid composition in Australian beef cattle. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12 Suppl:S38. PMID: 15023647

  • Ponnampalam EN, et al. Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):21-9. PMID: 16500874

Sunday, August 3, 2008

Say...All I Need @Stripped

OneRepublic
Say...All I Need (is TYP) LIVE at Stripped
video
Courtesy of Youtube.com


"I said all I need
Is the air I breathe
And a place (like TrackYourPlaque) to rest
My head

I said all I need
Is the air I breathe
And a place to rest
My head (And heart)

Do you know what your fate is?
And are you trying to shake it?
You're doing your best and
Your best look
You're praying that you make it
Whenever the end is
Do you think you can see it?

Well, until you get there
Go on, go ahead and scream it
Just say..."


*************
To Y'll... do you think ur an Ego-TrYP'er?
"Do you know where your heart is?
Do you think you can find it?
Or did you trade it for something
Somewhere better just to have it?
Do you know where your love is?
Do you think that you lost it?

You felt it so strong, but
Nothing's turned out how you wanted

Well, bless my soul
You're a lonely soul
Cause you won't let go
Of anything you hold"


In one of my favorite books (all time global best seller) a dude (Paul) was telling a story about how his friend JC (sort of the 'owner/bouncer' at the time) was advising someone about entering into the place across the 'velvet rope' so to speak. The Man was a rich guy. And a bit of an ego-tripper. However, he really really wanted get in to the 'VIP' area and stated he was willing to do anything to get in. Well, JC told the gentleman that he had done a fantastic job so far -- fulfilling many of the requirements already -- however one thing existed that he had not accomplished yet. He had been trained to do so (on his own and by many 'trainers'), but failed so far to complete the task. JC tried to explain that actually it is always hardest for a Man like him, wealthy and affluent (big ego, big wallet), to enter this swanky section. Apparently, no one can 'buy' their way in. JC told the man what he needed to do but the man looked at him... and sadly... walked away. It turned out the man could not part with what he wanted desperately to hold on to. Guess what?

In Track Your Plaque, plaque is obviously evident with high tech EBT scanning (granted one has 'scannable arteries' -- un-stented, un-bypassed) and likewise the amount stabilization/regression. Some may wonder why stabilization/regression may not be achieved in a 2-4 year period of time as predicted. Or why achieving the magic lipoprotein markers 60-60-60 in 6-12 months doesn't happen instantly. These individuals I've concluded have failed to be 'trainable'. Not to say that can't be changed or altered. Absolutely! Just as plaque is stabilizable/reversible. These earnst TYP'ers enlisted help on the forum -- personal consults from many peers and experts -- and read ALL the books and TYP Special Reports. Studied and graduated from our extensive curriculum and matriculated magna cum laude at 'TYP University'!

Why? People don't intentionally approach TYP with big egos... but a failure to be trainable can lead to drastic plaque consequences and unmitigated growth. Follow the path...

Get the Basics right. Get the Basics down. Veering off on plan B (ie, your plan) may cause delayed treatment outcomes. Or worse no outcomes at all. Dr. Davis' plan is plan A. (Plan A to get to Pattern A and hold it there forever.) Honey, there is no plan B.

Can you have your regression and your CAKE (wheat and carbs) too? What happened to the Queen? It's possible but you'd be pretty lucky SOB I think (and the other f-word...f-o-o-l. (I admit -- I was once a fool, like.. a month ago) Can you have regression... and a sedentary lifestyle? No way Jose.

The worst trainees are the ones who think they're 'highly trainable' when they're actually the 'least trainable' (at the current status). It's like us girls...when we think we're low maintenance *ha! haa!* (may I have a Caeser with the dressing on the side, and baked chicken not grilled and no anchovies? from when G-Love met JJ). You can tell who these individuals are instantly... when you request clinical data and...
--'my dog chewed up the blood glucose (BG) logsheet' they'll say!
--'Ooopss' I left my glucose meter in the car...and I parked my car half a mile away today
--'did you say you wanted to see my home BP records at every visit?'
--'you said to cut back on bananas, so now I'm eating 3 oranges everyday...' what?!

It seems to me like the biggest challenges often faced are the below (ie, so focus on these)...Success and how quick stabilization/regression occurs is often relative to how fast these important factors are achieved:
--wheat cessation -- complete 100% to 120% (are you holding on too tight?)
--vitamin D normalization
--fish oil EPA+DHA
--carb restriction -- starting counting carbs -- buy a $4.99 book at Borders or Walmart and start counting and eliminating carbs, esp refined processed carbs
--adequate fatty acids incl EPA + DHA
--adequate non-starchy veggies
--adequate protein (ie Paleolithic eating and lifestyle)
--exercise exercise exercise/10,000 steps or 5 miles or one-hour daily
--strength train 2-3/wk
--adequate Magnesium
--attitude of gratitude/OPTIMISM
--adequate fasting (but only when mental stress is minimal)
--minimal mental-stress (often the hardest -- focusing on getting your paleolithic 'clan/tribe/network/congregation' involved and emotionally supporting you; reach out and don't isolate yourself)

I've noticed that those TYP'ers who are open to being trained, grasp the simple ideas, follow directions quickly, and follow through on execution, are the ones who achieve the most regression. They adapt...survive and THRIVE. Don't be a paleolithic prey... Be a predator and conquer... crusade against plaque actively... Then share your experiences! Others may also want to live better longer and fitter than they are currently living. Personally, I find that I have the best outlook, health, and interpersonal relationships when my ego is subdued.
--service... serving my family, friends (incl web pals), colleagues and community
--stop talking (listen)
--putting action where my big phat hawt-air mouth is

Don't feel guilty or despair in paralysis. You're empowered now move (move on)... take one step at a time... and eventually you'll get there!

Don't let your ego obstruct the path and prevent entry into the stabilization/regression-zone...

Or the swanky life!