Why We Are Sick and Fat: Calories In (SUPERORGANISM) = Calories Out (MICROBIOTA) + Calories Out (HUMAN) + HEAT*Fluxxx
Centenarians and the Microbiota
I'll go over this one below soon -- BIG THANK YOU TO TATER/TIM AND M.O. FOR THE PDF!!! What is it about healthy, long-lived centenarians? I dunno... Their immunity? Their guts? let's delve deepper and find out more...
The above diagram is from the Marchesi piece (adapted from Biagi et al).
Biagi et al studied the microbiota of centarians (C), elderly (E) and young (Y). Distinct differences were noted. The microbiota of centenarians were distinctly unique and different from both the young and the elderly groups. Less Clostridium cluster XIVa, higher Bacilli and rearrangement of the Clostridium cluster IV composition were noted in the centenarians. Some things were expected in centenarians -- lower diversity, less of the good butyrate producers, less Bifido, and more pathogenic strains.
Quite unexpectedly, special characteristics of the gut ecosystems of the long-lived were discovered in this Biagi et al 2010 study which may define what an elite microbiota with a high G.I.Q. looks like.
(a) Enrichment of special butyrate producers Anaerotruncus colihominis et rel. (Clostridium cluster IV), and Eubacterium limosum et rel. (Clostridium cluster XV). Biagi et al concluded in a 2012 followup 'The increase of E. limosum is high (approximately 15- fold), and could point to a group of bacteria characteristic of the long life.' E. limonus is a soil strain which lives in ruminants like sheep and cow. Its very good at converting METHANOL. In one in vitro colitis model experiment, E. limonus had positive outcomes.
(b) Increase in facultative anaerobes, such as bacteria belonging to the groups Bacillus. Does this include my favorite soil based organism Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis? Does B licheniformis and B subtilis produce supercharged bionic Gut I.Q....?! What are foods that contain these? ANSWER here.
Biagi et al also found the connection between "The decrease of both Clostridium cluster XIVa and F. prausnitzii group members was also correlated to frailty condition, hospitalisation, antibiotic treatment and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy." Clostridium cluster XIVa is also referred to as the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale group which are potent cross feeders of resistant starch and raw potato starch in clinical experiments. E rectale are poor RS fermenters but they live symbiotically with keystone gut species that eat and ferment RS to secondary food (substrates) which E rectale consumes like a hog on fire. Hattip: Tater/Tim.
Smart, Young and Resilient Gut I.Q.
Intestinal IS (Immune System) = HOMEO- and ALLOSTASIS
Smart Gut I.Q.
There are a couple of elements that I believe are fundamental in a stable, homeostatic gut ecosystem that will take one to advanced longevity:
--genetics (respect your ancestry... don't mess genetic expression with synthetic hormones, vitamins, endocrine-disrupting pollution, pesticides, GMO food/products, lifestyles, thoughts or people)
--super tight junctions and intestinal IMPERMEABILITY
--special 'keystone leaders' like E. limosum, B subtilis, B licheniformis, and many others
--seed (return to the earth and intake healthy earth -- soil based organisms in fermented organic vegetables, fresh salads, and supplements if necessary (list here I like))
--weed (avoid mercury, toxins, food allergens/gluten and detox/chelate safely)
--feed with fiber (resistant starches, heirloom and native tubers, organic whole non-gluten grains, lentils, chana dal, legumes)
--exercise daily to move the gut (peristalsis), e.g. 10,000 steps or one hour mild to mod intensity. SIBO causes impaired gastric and intestinal peristalsis (and vice versa, sitting/atrophy can affect SIBO)
--misc (avoid unnecessary hospitalizations, CDAD (iatrogenic or antibiotic-induced C. difficile-associated diarrhoea), antibiotics, and other gut irritants like non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) -- ibuprofen, motrin, aleve, excedrine, etc)